Of course you can.
I picked up a Samsung ARM-based ChromeBook for cheap this week to add to our inventory and though it’s challenging to put Linux on it, I decided not to take that step. Instead I figured we could look at programming options on the device itself.
Scratch Jr is available on the Chrome store. For 5-8 year olds, it’s perfect for getting them started and it’s free and a great lead into Scratch itself.
Available only for Chromebooks, it’s an IDE for connecting to Raspberry Pi, Arduino and other IOT-type kits. IDeally you connect to a device and compile/test the code on the device.
A Terminal app (SSH) allowing you to connect directly to any ssh-capable host, like Linux, a Mac or Raspberry Pi. See it on the Chrome store!